Economía e intensificación agrícola: Variabilidad en trayectorias de cambio agrícola en la América Prehispánica

  • Juan Carlos Vargas Universidad del Magdalena
Palabras clave: cambio agrícola; sociedades complejas; arqueología del paisaje

Resumen

El paso de una economía de subsistencia a una economía política ha sido considerado como una de las transformaciones fundamentales para el surgimiento de sociedades complejas. El desarrollo de estrategias agrícolas intensivas que permitió la acumulación de excedentes se ha argumentado, fue una condición necesaria para la aparición de jerarquías regionales en distintas partes del mundo. Una de las principales evidencias que los arqueólogos han usado para demostrar la relación entre agricultura y el surgimiento de la desigualdad social ha sido el paisaje, el cual ha sido modificado mediante la implementación de estructuras a través del tiempo por las sociedades humanas alrededor del mundo. La elaboración de terrazas, campos elevados, sistemas hidráulicos para el cultivo, ha sido relacionada con procesos de intensificación económica y organización política centralizada. Este artículo presenta una discusión a partir de la revisión de los modelos arqueológicos de economía política en los que la construcción de estructuras para la producción de excedentes alimentarios fue crítica para el surgimiento de desigualdad social. Para esto se presenta un análisis comparativo de distintos casos de sociedades complejas provenientes de Colombia y otras regiones de América entre los que se encuentran los Llanos de Casanare, la región Calima; la región del Valle Black Warrior (Mississippi - Estados Unidos); los Llanos de Moxos (Bolivia), la Isla de Marajo (Brasil), la región de Yaguachi (Ecuador) y los Llanos de Barinas (Venezuela). Se plantea que, así como arqueológicamente se han identificado distintas trayectorias de cambio social en el pasado, también existieron distintas trayectorias de cambio agrícola, las cuales guardan relación con el surgimiento de desigualdad y complejidad social.   Palabras clave: Cambio agrícola, sociedades complejas, arqueología del paisaje.

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Publicado
2019-05-02
Cómo citar
Vargas, J. C. (2019). Economía e intensificación agrícola: Variabilidad en trayectorias de cambio agrícola en la América Prehispánica. Jangwa Pana, 18(2), 232-255. https://doi.org/10.21676/16574923.2927