Fisiopatología de los odontoblastos: una revisión

Palabras clave: odontoblastos, dentina, odontogénesis, fisiopatología

Resumen

Los odontoblastos son células post-mitóticas de origen mesenquimal dispuestas en forma de palizada en la periferia de la pulpa dental y responsables de la formación de la dentina. Los odontoblastos derivan de la cresta neural y su diferenciación es la consecuencia de las interacciones epitelio-mesénquima entre las células de la papila dental y el epitelio dental interno. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los aspectos fisiológicos y patológicos de los odontoblastos, comprendiendo su origen, mecanismos de diferenciación y propiedades funcionales. Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de literatura desde el año 2000 hasta Febrero de 2018, seleccionando 2889 artículos, de los cuales 52 artículos fueron analizados y discutidos. Los resultados exponen el origen, etapas y los factores relacionados con la diferenciación odontoblástica, junto con los aspectos principales de la organización estructural y funciones que desempeñan los odontoblastos. Esta revisión demuestra mediante la evidencia científica actual como los estudios concernientes a los odontoblastos se focalizan en comprender los mecanismos en la formación de la dentina reparativa, la respuesta inmunitaria y su rol en los procesos de inflamación y dolor. Trabajos futuros deberán esclarecer las diferentes señales involucradas en los procesos fisiopatológicos celulares y moleculares llevados a cabo por los odontoblastos. 

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Publicado
2019-09-23
Cómo citar
Simancas-Escorcia, V. H. (2019). Fisiopatología de los odontoblastos: una revisión. Duazary, 16(3), 87 - 103. https://doi.org/10.21676/2389783X.2971
Sección
Artículo de revisión