Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca: evaluación del entrenamiento deportivo. Revisión de tema

  • Javier Porras-Alvarez Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5817-7982
  • María Olinda Bernal-Calderón Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia
Palabras clave: atleta, ejercicio, sistema nervioso autónomo, sistema cardiovascular

Resumen

La variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca es un método no invasivo para evaluar la respuesta del sistema nervioso autónomo sobre el sistema cardiovascular, evalúa la capacidad de recuperación del sistema cardiovascular como respuesta al ejercicio físico. El análisis de los índices de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca refleja la respuesta autonómica cardiovascular a las diferentes cargas de entrenamiento. Esta revisión temática muestra las conclusiones y los protocolos de evaluación utilizados para controlar y evaluar el entrenamiento en atletas. La variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca fue analizada por los métodos de dominio tiempo y frecuencia. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos de SCOPUS, PubMed y el motor de búsqueda google académico, utilizando las palabras clave “heart rate variability” “athletes”, “cardiac autonomic modulations”. Los artículos seleccionados tuvieron como población objeto de estudio atletas de nivel competitivo de diferentes deportes. En conclusión, La evaluación de la Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca permite determinar la adaptación o inadaptación a las cargas de entrenamiento, programar el volumen y la intensidad adecuada de la carga de entrenamiento, supervisar el rendimiento a lo largo de los periodos de entrenamiento y monitorear el estado de forma deportiva durante los campeonatos en todos los deportes.

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Publicado
2019-02-20
Cómo citar
Porras-Alvarez, J., & Bernal-Calderón, M. O. (2019). Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca: evaluación del entrenamiento deportivo. Revisión de tema. Duazary, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.21676/2389783X.2750
Sección
Artículo de revisión