La otra inmigración a Argentina: el caso de Adolf Eichmann

  • Christian Cwik
Palabras clave: Adolf Eichmann, Holocausto, Tráfico Ilegal de Migrantes, Inmigración en Argentina, Peronismo, Tribunales Internacionales.

Resumen

Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal” (2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lumen, 1999) tuvo bastantes problemas para integrarse en la sociedad argentina y por ende, fracasó. Adolf Eichmann nacido en 1906 en Solingen/Alemania personificó un caractér típico de la sociedad en la posguerra austriaca-alemana, lo que hizo que fracasara en su vida laboral varias veces durante los veintes y los inicios de los treinta del siglo XX.        

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Citas

CHMELAR Hans, Höhepunkte der österreichischen Auswanderung. Die Auswanderung aus den im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreichen und Ländern in den Jahren 1905-1914. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1974.

The “Branceamento-concept” in Brazil failed because of the high percentage of Afro-Brazilians in the population. Argentina derived its claim for leadership from the “White concept“. SARMIENTO Faustino Domingo, Facundo. Buenos Aires 1998.

Juan Domingo Perón (1895-1974) became the President of Argentina again in 1973, but passed away on the 1st of July 1973 after less than nine months in office. About the number of Nazis in Argentine after 1945 still exists a controverse between MEDING Holger, Flucht vor Nürnberg. En: Lateinamerikanische Forschungen, Bd. 19. Köln-Weimar-Wien: Böhlau, 1992. y ZADUNAISKY Daniel, Investigadores discuten sobre refugio otorgado a criminales nazis. Buenos Aires 1994.

HUDAL Alois, Römische Tagebücher. Lebensbeichte eines alten Bischofs. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz-Stuttgart 1976. (5) Regarding the abduction: AHARONI Zvi / DIETL Wilhelm, Der Jäger. Operation Eichmann. Was wirklich geschah. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt. Stuttgart 1996. MALKIN Peter Z., Ich jagte Eichmann. Der Bericht des israelischen Geheimagenten, der den Organisator der “Endlösung” gefangennahm. Piper. München 1991.

Ibíd.

Isser Halperin alias Harel had doubts that Hermann approached Fritz Bauer in 1957 for the first time. He said in an interview with Irmtrud Wojnak that the first contact must have taken place in April 1956. WOJAK Irmtrud, Eichmanns Memoiren. Ein kritischer Essay. Campus Verlag. Frankfurt/M. New York 2001. p.212.

The small town Coronel Suárez is located in the southern part of the province of Buenos Aires around 200 km away from the capital.

The “Argentinisches Tageblatt” already argued against the National Socialism in 1933 and became the organ of the German Opposition against Nazi-Germany. See also: SCHOEPP Sebastian, Das “Argentinisches Tageblatt” 1933-1945. Ein Forum der antinationalsozialistischen Emigration. WVB. Berlin 1996.

L. Hermann also referred to that in his letter to Fritz Bauer 1960. En: WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren,” p. 27 s. In this letter to Bauer, L. Hermann complained about the way the Nazi hunters dealed with the issue. Especially his expenses for the search for Eichmann were not covered by the hunters sufficiently. Hermann also pointed out that Eichmann’s whereabouts could have never been located without his help and that he never received the promised reward from T. Friedman.

Mossad Chief Isser Harel is going into details on this issue once more. En: HAREL Isser,The House of Garibaldi Street. The capture of A. Eichmann. London 1975.

The Institute for Intelligence and special tasks was established on the 1st of April 1951 and was emanating from the Sherut Jediot. En: AHARONI/DIETL, “Der Jäger,” p. 93.

Regarding the controversy: siehe GIEFER Renate / GIEFER Thomas, Die Rattenlinie. Fluchtwege der Nazis. Eine Dokumentation, 3. Ed.,Weinheim 1995, p. 62-65. WIESENTHAL Simon, Recht nicht Rache. Berlin 1988. FRIEDMANN Tuviah, Die “Ergreifung Eichmanns”. Dokumentarische Sammlung. Haifa 1971.

WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren,” p.17.

Hermann mistook Friedrich Schmidt, the owner of the house in the Calle Chacabuco, for Eichmann who was only a tenant. The Mossad’s background check on the landlord showed that F. Schmidt could never be A. Eichmann. En: ibid., p.30. When Hofstetter met Hermann the first time in the first week of March, the Mossad special agent realized that his apparently most important informant was a blind man. In: AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger,” p.122.

MEDING Holgar, “Der Weg” Eine deutsche Emigrantenzeitschrift in Buenos Aires

-1957. WVB. Berlin 1997 p. 132-34.

WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren”. p. 31.

The mentioned SS-officer is assumed to be W. A. Sassen who also offered his transcript to the American Publisher Time/LIFE shortly before Eichmann’s abduction. Ibid., p. 32. The Mossad expected even more information about other Nazi criminals from W. A. Sassen, especially about J. Mengele und F. Stangl. LAURYSSENS Stan, De fatale vriendschappen van Adolf Eichmann. Leuven 1998. p. 179.

According to Lauryssens, Isser Harel was notified about an offer regarding the publication of the memoirs of a war criminal by the Time/LIFE-Buenos Aires bureau chief Phil Payne himself and travelled to the La Plata metropolis right away in April 1960. At the same time he supposedly made plans for the abduction. Ibid., p.207.

The SS registered Eichmann with the number Nr. 45 326.

Eichmann had known Veronica Liebl who came from Sudeten Czech stock, since the summer of 1932. KONING Ines de, “A Study of Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962). Adolf Hitlers's expert in Jewish Affairs”, Bach. Arts, Newton College of the Sacred Hearth, 1964, p. 6.

Later his service at a Foreign Legion was used as an excuse by the Austrian government to present him as a German to avoid possible restitutions after his arrest in 1960. The discussion of Eichmanns citizenship is the subject of my contemporary research. CWIK Christian, Österreichische Nationalsozialisten in Argentinien. Der Fall Adolf Eichmann und seine Perzeption“, En: Meding Holger (Ed.), Argentinien und das Dritte Reich, Berlin 2008, p. 255-282.

AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger”, p. 20.

Various geo-politic considerations suggest that the Jewish State was supposed to be located around Galicia, Madagascar, Brazil or Palestine.

In addition Heinrich Müller was also the chief executive officer of the “Reichszentrale für jüdische Auswanderung” and the RHSA-Amt IV in 1939.

MOMMSEN Hans, Auschwitz, 17. Juli 1942. Der Weg zur europäischen "Endlösung der Judenfrage" München 2002. MOSER Jonny, Die Judenverfolgung in Österreich 1938 - 1945. Europa Verlag. Wien 1966.

The meeting took place on the 20th of January 1942 at the department of the “Internationale Kriminalpolizeiliche Kommission” in Berlin, Am Großen Wannsee 56/58, setting the seal on the killing of the so-called “enemies of the Third Reich”.

The scientific documentation and analysis of the Holocaust is so extensive and

therefore impossible to quote at this place.

WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren”, p. 19.

LINCK Stephan, “Festung Nord” und “Alpenfestung”. Das Ende des NSSicherheitsapparates”,

En: Paul Gerhard / Mallmann Michael (ed.), Die Gestapo im Zweiten Weltkrieg. “Heimatfront” und besetztes Europa. Darmstadt 2000. p. 574-595.

Adolf Barth was a grocer in Berlin who supplied the Eichmann family. MALKIN, Ich jagte Eichmann”, p.92.

Eichmann stated the Polish town Breslau as his birthplace and the 9th of March 1905 as his birthdate, because he was acquainted with the fact that the registries were being destroyed in the course of Allied bombings. AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger”, p. 93.

Eichmann’s former closest co-worker SS-Sturmbannführer Dieter Wisliczeny testified against him in Nuremberg and gave the CIC a detailed description of Eichmann.

Eichmann used the false name Otto Heninger and stated that he was born on the 19th of March 1906. Ibid., p. 71.

WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren”, p.20.

He was the forest official Feiersleben, Revierförsterei Kohlenbach, Altensalzkoth, Eversen, Celle.

Eichmann was still ranked far behind the Nazi politicians, the political strategists and the Nazi military leaders in the German public’s comprehension. After the unsuccessful hunt, he fell into oblivion. As some of his former comrades did, who were directing the attention to the fleeing Eichmann and named him as the main coordinator and mastermind of the Holocaust during the Nuremberg trials.

In the course of the investigations even Mrs. Eichmann was being tracked down in Bad Aussee, but a possible abduction was declined by the young Israeli leadership.

PENDORF Robert, Mörder und Ermordete. Eichmann und die Judenpolitik des Dritten Reiches. Hamburg: 1961, p. 139; AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger”, p.82.

WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren”, p.20.

Santa Maria dell' Anima is a theological college for German priests in the Vatican.

An “Austrian consulate” (Guiseppe Siri: Bishop of Genoa, Monsignor. Heinemann und Gruber, et cetera) was set up in the Vatican by a syndicate initiated by Bishop Alois Hudal and guaranteed a facilitated transaction of administrative aspects. HUDAL Alois, Römische Tagebücher. Lebensbeichte eines alten Bischofs. Leopold Stocker Verlag. Graz-Stuttgart 1976.

The Pallotine padre Anton Weber of the St. Raphael society in Rome claimed that A. Eichmann approached Hudal under his new name Richard Klement to conceal his true identity. SERENY Gitta, Am Abgrund: Gespräche mit dem Henker. Franz Stangl und die Mörder von Treblinka. Zürich 1995, p. 377. KLEE Ernst, Persilscheine und falsche Pässe. Wie die Kirchen den Nazis halfen. Frankfurt/Main, 1991, p. 25.

Alois Hudal and Eugenio Pacelli (Pius XII) had known each other since 1923 when they were spending time in Germany together. It was also Cardinal E. Pacelli who mitred Hudal in 1933. LANGER Markus, “Alois Hudal. Bischof zwischen Kreuz und Hakenkreuz. Versuch einer Biographie”. Diss., Universität Wien, 1995.

Eichmann indicated Bolzano as his place of birth and stated he was born 1913,

which made him seven years younger.

SAFRIAN Hans, Die Eichmann Männer. Europaverlag. Wien 1993; SAFRIAN Hans, Eichmann und seine Gehilfen. Fischer Verlag. Frankfurt/Main 1997.

AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger,” p.72-75.

STEINACHER Gerald, Nazis auf der Flucht. Wie Kriegsverbrecher über Italien nach Übersee entkamen. Innsbruck 2008.

Argentina announced the admission of 4 million immigrants with a rate of 30,000 per month. An official immigration treaty was signed by Italy on the 20th of March 1948 and another one by Spain on the 18th of October 1948. MEDING Holger, Flucht vor Nürnberg? Böhlau Verlag, Köln-Wien 1992, p. 47.

Ibid., p.85.

STEINACHER Gerald, Nazis auf der Flucht. Wie Kriegsverbrecher über Italien nach Übersee entkamen. Innsbruck 2008. passim.

To a minor degree there was also German immigration in all Ibero-American states while the immigration to English, French, Dutch and Danish colonies were negligible as a demographic factor.

From Faustino Sarmiento or Juan Batista Alberdi, the two Argentinean philosophers.

The registration of non-German-speaking immigrants from Austro-Hungary is very difficult aside from the few statistic facts about immigrated Hungarians in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, South America, Africa, Australia and Asia between 1876 and 1910. CHMELAR, “Höhepunkte,” p. 24.

Englisch Karl Ritter von, Die österreichische Auswanderungsstatistik. En: Statistische

Monatsschrift, Jahrgang 18, Neue Folge (Brünn 1913) p. 65.

Perón appointed the former director of the immigration department Santiago Peralta

to be the head of the Instituto Étnico, a preliminary stage of the confederation.

MEDING, “Flucht vor Nürnberg,” p.44.

Ibid., p.44

STEINACHER (2008). P.64 s. A photograph shows him with two companions on the deck of a ship. Eichmann is wearing a hat, a black coat and a bow tie. AHARONI / DIETL, “Der Jäger,” p. 84.

Audio tapes of an interview (for the “stern”) with the former Flemish SS-officer Willem Sassen (Federal Archive in Coblenz).

BAR ZOHAR Michael, Die Jagd auf die deutschen Wissenschafter. Propylen. Berlin 1965, p. 174.

Santiago Peralta is considered as the head of the anti-Semitic policy before 1945 in the newer Jewish-Argentinean historiography. KLICH Ignacio, Four Decades after the Capture in Buenos Aires of an Austrian from Linz: The Eichmann Affair in Memoirs, Argentinian Testimonians and Journalism. Rathkolb Oliver (ed.), Revisiting the National Socialist Legacy. Studien Verlag. Innsbruck 2002, p. 259-309.

Other cooperators were Pablo Diana and Enrique González. See: MEDING, “Flucht vor Nürnberg”, p. 159.

Ibid., p. 218.

Avenida Cordoba was the registered office of the CAPRI 374 in Buenos Aires,

Ibid., p. 215.

Dr. August Siebrecht was the executive director of the AEG in Chile during the WWII. After his detention in the United States he returned to South America in 1945, where he became J. Peron’s advisor.

Ibid., p. 215.

Resolución 882/50; Expediente C-63-50-cde. Buenos Aires 21.07.1950. Ibid. p. 216.

Sterzinger’s construction company in São Paulo had approximately 3000 employees.

Ibid., 219.

Mrs. Eichmann told their children that they were going to visit Uncle Ricardo in Argentina. WOJAK, “Eichmanns Memoiren,” p. 21.

MEDING, „Flucht vor Nürnberg,“ p. 261.

BLASCHITZ Edith: NS-Flüchtlinge Österreichischer Herkunft: Der Weg nach Argentinien. DÖW. Wien 2003; KLICH Ignacio, „Argentina de cara a la historia” En: .Américas – Zeitschrift für Kontinentalamerika und die Karibik, No.28/4-2003:53-67.

Publicado
2009-01-29
Cómo citar
Cwik, C. (2009). La otra inmigración a Argentina: el caso de Adolf Eichmann. Clío América, 3(5), 85-103. https://doi.org/10.21676/23897848.385
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